Basic Concept of Network Architecture

Basic Concept of Network Architecture:

Network architecture explain how the computer in a network interacts with each other and network devices. It is defined as the physical and logical design of software, hardware, protocols, and media of transmission of data. Based on architecture there are two types of networks. They are:

  1. Peer-to-Peer Network Architecture
  2. Client Server Network Architecture

Peer-to-Peer Network Architecture:

In a peer-to-peer architecture, all computers have equal authority to access data and therefore are known as peers. Each computer functions as both a client and a server. There is no dedicated server. peer-to-peer network is also called workgroup. The term workgroup refers to the small group of individual computers, who work together. This network architecture is a good choice for environment where there are few computers and users, security is not an issue, and centralized control is not needed.

Advantages of Peer-to-Peer Architecture

  1. It is simple and easier to set up.
  2. The overall cost of implementing and managing the network is cheaper.
  3. If a computer fails to operate, it will not affect others.
  4. Users can manage their own system, so dedicated system administrator is not required.

Disadvantage of Peer-to-Peer Architecture

  1. Administration of the network is difficult without a dedicated server.
  2. Data security is poor in this architecture.
  3. Data recovery and backup process are difficult.
  4. It is not appropriate for a large organization having a large number of computers.

Client-Server Architecture

The Client-server architecture contains at least one dedicated server and client computers. The server always provides services to clients, and a client always receives services from the server. The server provides services like data, webpage, email, SMS, file, print, etc.

Client-server Network has become the standard networking model. As network increases in size and traffic, more than one server is needed. Spreading the task among several servers ensures that each task will be performed in the most efficient possible manner. In this network architecture Data recovery and backup process the easier. Centralized administration is possible through the network High security can be provided by using the appropriate server.  It is appropriate for a large organization having a large number of computers.


Client: The client is a user-facing device that initiates requests for services or resources. It sends requests to the server and receives responses. Clients can be desktop, laptop, smart phone, web browsers, mobile apps or any software that interacts with a server.

Server: The server is a powerful computer or software system that provides services, resources or data in response to client requests. Servers are designed to handle multiple client requests simultaneously and efficiently process and manage the data required by the clients.

Advantages of Client-server Network Architecture:

Centralized Management: Servers centralize data and resources, making it easier to manage, update, and maintain information. This simplifies maintenance tasks compared to a decentralized or peer-to-peer model.

Security: Centralized servers allow for better security control. Sensitive data can be stored and protected on the server, reducing the risk of data openings on client devices.

Resource Sharing: Server-based applications enable resource sharing, which helps reduce duplication of efforts and resources. Multiple clients can access and utilize the same resources effectively.

Updates and Maintenance: Software updates, bug fixes, and improvements can be applied to the server, which then reflects changes across all connected clients.

Data Integrity: Servers provide a single point of fact for data. This helps continue data consistency and integrity across different clients.

Backup and Recovery: Centralized data on the server can be backed up regularly which make data recovery easier.

Disadvantages of Client-Server Network Architecture

  1. It is expensive due to the use of dedicated servers.
  2. It is complex to establish and manage.
  3. Experienced administrators are required to implement and manage the network.
  4. If the server fails, it will affect the network. That is whole network will fail.

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